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General structure:

More than just Meetings. Applicable to a variety of online collaborative activities, such as webinars, forums. This could also apply to team activities that are not based on electronic tools. However, the focus of this Profile is on activities that are mediated electronically because this is more pertinent to the context in which xAPI data is likely to be gathered.

Note that certain structural objects or events are regarded as equivalent in this, for example:

  • a session = a meeting = a webinar = a discussion channel = a notebook = a folder ;

  • or at a lower level within these, a motion = an agenda item = a topic of conversation = a discussion thread = a document.

So for tracking activities, it is reasonable to regard a meeting as the same kind of atomic object as a webinar etc. For Discussion Forums, this might not be so clear and worth some discussion.









agenda item





Discussion channel

Discussion thread

Not all forums are set up this way






Assessment of participation & contributions has been hard. Would be good to have a way to data inform the facilitators



  • Initialized

    • Created the session, meeting, webinar, discussion channel

      • this is done by the moderator/facilitator/administrator

      • this may just be the booking


    • Note that this may need several timestamps eg the meeting scheduled start time(SST), actual start time(AST)

      • note that some participants may join a session before it is Opened

        • since it is the moderator/facilitator who Opens the session

        • Participants may not Join a Session that has not been Initialized

    • Note that this is not the same as Opened

    • The Actor who initializes the session is commonly the moderator/facilitator who Opens the session

      • but it does not have to be the same person

  • We recommend the use of ISO 8601 timestamps because

    • time zones are a challenge for distributed teams

  • Opened

  • Terminated

  • Suspended

  • Resumed

  • Completed

  • Proposed

    • putting forward a motion, agenda item, discussion thread or poll

  • Seconded

    • similar to proposed a required action for some objects eg. a motion

  • Voted

    • action in support of or against a proposed motion, or in a poll

      • note that motions tend to be binary choices but polls can have many different options or structural types

      • note that polls may be similar to Questions in some other activities (eg. see Virtual Patient Profile)

    • not the same as 'decided', which would be the cause of some future action or activity.

  • Agreed

  • Decided

    • conclusion of a motion, poll

    • we suggest that in many situations, it is better to precede this verb with a definite call to action. Using 'Decided' as a way of indicating that a discussion thread or conversation has come to a conclusion is risky in many contexts

  • Closed

  • Sidebarred

    • time spent on activity that is tangentially related to the meeting process or content

    • not part of the main conversational thread

  • Interrupted

    • interjected into an ongoing session activity, outwith the normal flow

    • does not necessarily entail a change in topic

    • is not necessarily a bad thing

      • eg. a webinar speaker may have given permission to participants to interrupt a topic with questions on-the-fly, or there might be a question raised in the text chat bar, while she was speaking

      • note that you might need to consider how to handle timestamps with text/chat interruptions eg. the time that the interruption was posted might be different from the timestamp where it became active in the conversation or the speaker noticed it

  • Assigned

  • Volunteered

    • Offered to complete a task

  • Asked

  • Commented

    • this will be a very commonly used verb


    • Might also use Annotated


        • and two other definitions

      • Might be useful to distinguish between annotations to files/documents and comments in discussions

        • although there are advantages to conflating them

    • Might also use Posted

    • note that in some discussion forums, you can comment on Comments, introducing a whole new stream

      • need to decide whether this constitutes the creation of a new thread or not

      • at the moment, this secondary stream is being regarded as a sub-thread

      • this is recursive so need to figure out how in the Object you are going to track this cascade of sub-threads

  • Tagged

    • Added or edited metadata for an object or file eg categories, keywords, descriptors

    • Such metadata is often, but not necessarily, intended for machine use

    • Not the same as Commented because metadata is often not visible as part of the regular information stream, unless specifically revealed


  • Redacted

    • topic or thread or comment removed from the record post hoc by the session moderator

    • we suggested such an item be flagged as no longer visible but that it not be deleted from the system, in case it needs to be reviewed later

  • Ruled

    • not sure if that is the best verb to use

    • applied a rule of order or process to get a session or topic back on track, or to bring a verbose participant thread or conversation back

    • some systems might only allow this by the session facilitator/chair/moderator

  • Joined

  • Left

  • Rejoined

    • typically after Left

      • but note that a disconnection may not be logged within the system actively as Left

      • May be difficult to discriminate from Joined in most systems

    • Or could use Resumed

  • Split

    • into parallel activities, such as small group discussions, concurrent threads

    • this is typically performed by the moderator/facilitator

    • this is an intentional divergence into concurrent activities, with the intention of merging again at some point

  • Forked

    • a divergence into a separate activity stream, without the specific intention to Merge or regroup

    • In team activities in computer programming, this could refer to forking into a different branch or version of the code; or it could refer to a discussion thread

  • Merged

    • from split parallel activities back to common activity

    • See above note about Forked for programming

  • Uploaded

  • Downloaded

  • Removed

    • deleted a file or other learning object from the common pool for the participants

    • might be better to flag an object as unavailable rather than truly deleting it from the object store

      • but this decision lies with the programmers of the primary system, not the LRS activity tracking


  • Shared

    • changed the file access properties to include more or less participants


    • will commonly be part of the Uploaded verb

    • some systems may not keep these separate

  • Edited

    • make some change or addition to an Initialized file/document


    • this is not the same as commenting

    • some systems may demand that the file/document be Opened for editing, before this can happen; others may assume that a file/document is already Opened for editing once it has been initialized

  • Suggested

    • Proposed a change or addition within a version control system or change tracking system

    • eg. Google Docs suggestions vs direct editing

  • Accepted

  • Rejected

  • Scheduled

    • Create or edit a plan or timetable for carrying out a process or procedure, giving lists of intended events and times.

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