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Educational Achievement Specifications

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Version: 0.011
Date: May 1, 2012
Authors: Valerie Smothers
Author email: vsmothers@jhmi.edu

 


Version History

 

Version No.

Date

Changed By

Changes Made

0.1

2012-04-11

Valerie Smothers

Initial draft

0.11

2012-05-01

Valerie Smothers

Added assessment results and more subelements.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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1          Acknowledgements

 

The MedBiquitous Consortium wishes to acknowledge the help of  the MedBiquitous Educational Trajectory Working Group members, invited experts, and other individuals that contributed to the creation of this document, including:

 

  • Linda Lewin, M.D., University of Maryland, Co-Chair
  • Alan Schwartz, Ph.D., University of Illinois at Chicago, Co-Chair

 

  • Susan Albright, Tufts University
  • Michael Barbouche, Odeon Data
  • Linda Bell, RN, MSN, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
  • Dana Bostrom, Association of American Medical Colleges
  • Rachel Brown, M.D., University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine
  • Diane Burkhart, Ph.D., American Osteopathic Association
  • Timothy Cain, Ph.D., Ohio State University
  • Carol Carraccio, M.D., American Board of Pediatrics
  • Kelly Caverzagie, University of Nebraska Medical Center
  • Christa Chaffinch , National Board of Medical Examiners
  • Brian Clare, One45 Software
  • Elaine Dannefer , Ph.D., Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve
  • Jeroen Donkers, Ph.D., University of Maastricht
  • Mike Dugan, Federation of State Medical Boards
  • Robert Englander, Association of American Medical Colleges
  • Maria Esquela, Advanced Informatics
  • Bob Galbraith, M.D., National Board of Medical Examiners
  • Gwen Garrison, Association of American Medical Colleges
  • Maureen Garrity, UC Denver
  • Simon Grant, Ph.D., JISC
  • Hilary Haftel, University of Michigan
  • Patricia Hicks, University of Pennsylvania
  • Kimberly Hoffman, Ph.D., University of Missouri
  • William Iobst, M.D. American Board of Internal Medicine
  • Steve Kenney, American Osteopathic Association
  • John Jackson, University of Virginia
  • Chandler Mayfield, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine  
  • Neil Mehta, MD., Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University
  • David Melamed, M.D., MyEvaluations.com
  • John Norcini, M.D., Foundation for the Advancement of International Medical Education and   Research
  • Patricia O'Sullivan, Ed.D. , University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine
  • Anita Pokorny,   Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy
  • Vijay Rajput, MD., Cooper University Hospital
  • Sandhya Samavedam, Wright Center for Graduate Medical Education
  • Rosalyn Scott, Wright State University
  • Howard Silverman, University of Arizonia
  • C. Scott Smith, M.D., VA Medical Center, Boise Idaho
  • Kirk Smith, M.D., Ph.D., University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
  • Kevin Souza, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine
  • Anderson Spickard, M.D., Vanderbilt School of Medicine
  • Andria Thomas, Ph.D., Medical College of Georgia
  • Linda Thomas-Hemak, The Wright Center for Graduate Medical Education
  • Hettie Till, University of Dundee
  • Janet Trial, University of Southern California
  • Loreen Troy, University of Illinois College of Medicine
  • Sandra Waters, Federation of State Medical Boards

 

Specification authors also received technical guidance from members of the MedBiquitous Technical Steering Committee.

  • Joel Farrell , IBM, Technical Steering Committee Chair
  • James Fiore, American Board of Surgery
  • Steve Kenney, American Osteopathic Association
  • Andrew Rabin, CECity
  • Dan Rehak, Learning Technologies Architect
  • Dan White, American Board of Internal Medicine

 

 

 


2          Documentation Conventions

This document uses the following conventions:

Convention

Description

Bold Text

When used with an XML element name, indicates that the element contains sub-elements.

Italics

When used in an XML element description, an attribute of the XML element.

Monospaced type

Sample XML tags, code, schema, or portion thereof.

 

The document uses graphics generated by Altova XML Spy® software, which uses the following graphical conventions.

address-example_schemadiagram.png


3          Conformance

To conform to the MedBiquitous Educational Achievement specification, an XML document shall:

  • Validate against the Educational Achievement XML Schema available at: http://ns.medbiq.org/educationalachievement/v1/educationalachievment.xsd
  • Conform to any additional requirements stated in this specification.
  • Optionally include elements not defined in this document only in permitted areas and only if those elements are namespace qualified.

 

 


4          Common Data Types

Most of the elements and attributes in MedBiquitous XML documents use the data types defined by the W3C XML 1.0 schema definition [ XSD ]. In some cases MedBiquitous creates its own datatypes as part of its best practices or to meet a specific requirement. Commonly used datatypes are described below.   

4.1        Non-null string

Non-null string is a datatype derived from the XML string datatype.  Non-null string imposes a minimum length of one character on a string and ensures that required elements are complete.

4.2        Identifying Data through XPath

XPath is a language for finding information in an XML document. XPath is used to navigate through elements and attributes in an XML document. It is a W3C Standard.

The MedBiquitous Curriculum Inventory uses XPath to point to data and resources in a single XML report.

XPath expressions use the following construction:

/SomeElement/SomeSubElement

Selects all SomeSubElements that are sub-elements of SomeElement.

/SomeElement/SomeSubElement[@test= ' x ' ]

Selects all SomeSubElements that have an attribute named test with a value of ‘x’ that are sub-elements of SomeElement.

/SomeElement/SomeSubElement/text()

Selects all element content (text) in all SomeSubElements that are sub-elements of SomeElement.

 

Example:

 

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext/Curriculum/Events/Event[@id= ' 123 ' ]

 

This example provides a reference to the Event with an id of 123.

 

 


5          Introduction

This document describes MedBiquitous Educational Achievement specification in detail. It is intended for use by anyone who wants to develop tools or implement electronic systems for reporting an individual’s achievements, including data about the individual’s performance in relation to defined competencies.

Background…

The objective of the specification is to provide a consistent format and data structure for educational achievement data. The standard allows extensions so that data beyond the core set identified in this document may be communicated to other organizations. This specification is intended to work in concert with other specifications.

This specification intentionally excludes the following from its scope:

  • Credentials awarded as a result of achievements, including degrees, certifications, licenses, etc.
  • Continuing education.
  • Activities completed as part of a maintenance of certification or continuous certification process.

 

Credentials may be described using the MedBiquitous Professional Profile. Continuing education, maintenance of certification, and continuous certification activities may be described using the MedBiquitous Activity Report. Information on these standards is available through the Medbiquitous website: http://medbiq.org/std_specs/standards/index.html

 


6          Other Standards, Specifications, or Schema Referenced

 

This standard references the following standards, specifications, or schemas. The informative references here, which describe how these references are used, link to formal references appearing later in this document.

  • MedBiquitous Competency Framework [Competency Framework]
    note about context..
  • Curriculum Inventory [Curriculum Inventory]
     
  • Healthcare Professional profile
     
  • Performance Framework
     
  • Others TBD
     
  • XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition), A Reformulation of HTML 4 in XML 1.0. W3C Recommendation 26 January 2000, revised 1 August 2002.  [ XHTM L ]
    XHTML provides the format for supporting information embedded in the competency framework.

 

 

 


7          Terminology

Much of the terminology in this area is ill-defined or ambiguous, often employed differently (and sometimes interchangeably) by different professionals [ Harden 1 ]  To ensure clarity and consistency we provide working definitions of the terminology we use in the context of this paper:

Note: the Competencies working group is developing many of these definitions. See: http://groups.medbiq.org/medbiq/display/CWG/Performance+Framework+-+Definitions

  • Competency – a statement describing a specific ability, or set of abilities, requiring specific knowledge, skill and/or attitude.  Competencies are used to set performance standards that must be met [ Albanese 1 ]
  • Competency Framework – an organized and structured representation of a set of interrelated and purposeful competency objects.
  • Competency Object – an umbrella term used to describe any abstract statement of learning or performance expectations, and information related to the statement.  Statements can be learning outcomes, competencies per se, learning objectives, professional roles, topics, classifications/collections, etc.  The Competency Object may include additional data to expand on or support the statement.  The Object is abstract in the sense that it does not inherently contain information about connections of the statement to individuals or events or other objects.
  • Entrustable Professional Activity
  • Learning Objective – the intended aggregate learner endpoint for an activity, typically directly linked to the means by which it is to be achieved.  Learning objectives may be derived from competencies or learning outcomes.
  • Learning Outcome – the intended aggregate learner endpoint for a program, typically independent of the means by which the outcome is achieved.  Used to identify, define and communicate the skills and qualities graduates should have [ Harden 2 ]
  • Learning Object – a digital resource used to support learning.
  • Performance – a demonstration of practice, such as patient care. Can be used as evidence of one or more competencies.
  • Performance Framework
  •  

 


8          Educational Achievement Schema

The following sections explain the Educational Achievement Schema grammar. Values in bold under XML Tags column indicate that the element has sub-elements.

All the elements having sub-elements will be defined in separate sections. All elements without sub-elements will be defined within the appropriate element sections that use them.

8.1        EducationalAchievement

EducationalAchievment is the root element. It contains subelements that describe a learner’s achievements in detail. EducationalAchievement must occur once within an Educational Achievment document.

EducationalAchievement Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

EducationalAchievement

EducationalAchievment is the root element. It describes a learner’s educational achievements in detail.

Required

1

Container

 

Date

The date of this educational achievement record.

Required

1

Date

Learner

Information about the learner whose educational achievement data is described.

Learner uses the MemberType from the MedBiquitous Healthcare Professional Profile [ Professional Profile ].

Required

1

Container

For more information, see ANSI/MEDBIQ 10.1-2008 Healthcare Professional Profile.

AchievementInContext

Information about a learner’s achievements within the context of a curriculum of instruction and/or assessment.

Required

1 or more

Container

 

Example:

 

TBD

 

8.2        AchievementInContext

AchievmentInContext is a subelement of EducationalAchievement. It contains subelements that describe a learner’s achievements within the context of a curriculum of instruction and/or assessment.

 

AchievementInContext Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

AchievementInContext

Information about a learner’s achievements within the context of a curriculum of instruction and/or assessment.

Required

1 or more

Container

Source

The source of this achievement data.

Required

1

NonNullString

ReportID

A unique identifier for this set of achievement data. ReportID has the following attribute:

domain

Defines defines the organization that is the source of the unique identifier. Domain has the following format:

idd: domainname : localidentifier

Where:

domainname is an internet domain name owned by the organization issuing the unique ID and

localidentifer is a local identifier for the type of unique ID.

For example:

idd:ucsf.edu:somreport

 

Required

1

NonNullString

Institution

Institution contains the name, identifier, and address of the institution where the educational achievements were made.

Institution uses the InstitutionInfoType from the MedBiquitous Healthcare Professional Profile [ Professional Profile ].

Required

1

Container

For more information, see ANSI/MEDBIQ 10.1-2008 Healthcare Professional Profile.

Program

Program contains the name and identifier of the program where the achievements were made. 

Program uses the ProgramType from the MedBiquitous Curriculum Inventory [Curriculum Inventory].

Optional

0 or 1

Container

For more information, see MedBiquitous Curriculum Inventory.

ReportDate

The date the report was created.

Required

1

Date

ReportingStartDate

The first day of the period that this achievement data covers.

Required

1

Date

ReportingEndDate

The last day of the period that this achievement data covers.

Required

1

Date

Language

The language of the achievement data. For example, en-US indicates US English.

Optional

0 or 1

Language

CurriculumDescription

A free text description of the curriculum in which the learner was engaged.

Optional

0 or 1

NonNullString

SupportingLink

A link to supporting information, such as a pictorial representation of the curriculum or a document explaining the rationale behind the curriculum structure.

The link must be a URN or URL. For example: http://www.example.edu/curriculum.pdf

Optional

0 or 1

anyURI

Events

Events contains information about the education and assessment events the learner experienced.

For more information, see section Events.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Expectations

Expectations contains subelements that describe the competencies, learning objectives, and learning outcomes  implemented in a curriculum and how they are organized.

For more information, see section Expectations.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

PerformanceFrameworks

PerformanceFrameworks contains subelements that describe sets of performance levels and criteria associated with competency frameworks.

For more information, see…

Optional

0 or 1

Container

SummaryScore

SummaryScore contains subelements that describe the learner’s performance across the curriculum.

For more information, see section SummaryScore.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

AcademicLevels

AcademicLevels contains subelements that describe information about the academic levels defined for this curriculum.

Program uses the AcademicLevelsType from the MedBiquitous Curriculum Inventory [Curriculum Inventory].

Optional

0 or 1

Container

For more information, see MedBiquitous Curriculum Inventory.

Sequence

Sequence contains subelements that describe information about how the learner’s curriculum of study is organized over a period of time.

For more information, see section Sequence.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Integration

Integration contains subelements that describe how a curriculum is integrated.

For more information, see section Integration.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Portfolio

Portfolio includes the learner’s educational trajectory and other portfolio data related to this record of achievement.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Elements from other namespaces

AchievementInContext may include elements from other namespaces provided those elements are namespace qualified.

Optional

0 or 1

Any

 

Example:

Tbd

 

8.3        Events

Events contains information about the education and assessment events the learner experienced.

 

Events Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

Events

Events contains sub elements that describe information about the education and assessment events that comprise the curriculum

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Event

Event contains subelements that describe a single education or assessment event. Examples of events include: lecture, problem-based learning activity, virtual patient activity, seminar, lab, OSCE, and written exam, to name a few.

For more information, see section Event.

Required

1 or more

Container

Example:

Tbd

 

8.4        Event

Event is a subelement of Events that contains subelements that describe a single education or assessment event the learner experienced. Examples of events include: lecture, problem-based learning activity, virtual patient activity, Simulation activity, seminar, lab, bedside learning activity, OSCE, and written exam to name a few. Events can be combined to form a sequence block within a curriculum. Events may reference learning objectives, competencies, or learning outcomes captured in expectations, as well as curricular themes, known as integration blocks. Events may contain assessment results.


Event Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

Event

Event contains subelements that describe a single education or assessment event. Examples of events include: lecture, problem-based learning activity, virtual patient activity, seminar, lab, OSCE, and written exam, to name a few.

Event has the following attribute:

id
A unique identifier for this event. Use of the id attribute is required.

Required

1 or more

Container

Title

A title for this education or assessment event.

Required

1

Non-null string

EventDuration

The duration of the event.in hours. For example, PT20H indicates 20 hours.

Required

1

Duration (restricted to hours)

Description

A free text description of the education or assessment event.

Optional

0 or 1

Non-null string

Keyword

An important concept or topic related to the event.

Keyword uses the keyword type and custom attributes from Healthcare Learning Object Metadata [ Healthcare LOM ].

Optional

0 or more

For more information see ANSI/MEDBIQ  LO.10.1-2008.

Interprofessional

An indicator as to whether or not this event is designed to engage students of different health professions as teams. The default value is false.

Optional

0 or 1

Boolean

CompetencyObjectReference

A reference to the unique id for a learning objective, competency, learning outcome, (all of which are known as competency objects) associated with this event. CompetencyObjectReference has the following format:

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext/ Expectations/CompetencyObject [lom:lom/ lom:general/lom:identifier/lom:entry= ' X ' ]

All in one line, where X is the id of a Competency Object in this achievement record.

Optional

0 or more

Restricted (to conformant XPath)

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

Resource

A resource used in this event. A recommended list is available as part of the Curriculum Inventory Standardized Instructional and Assessment Methods and Resources [ Vocabularies ].

Optional

0 or more

Non-null string

InstructionalMethod

An instructional method used in this event. It is strongly recommended that communities using this specification to share information use an agreed upon set of terms. A recommended list is available as part of the Curriculum Inventory Standardized Instructional and Assessment Methods and Resources [ Vocabularies ].

InstructionalMethod has the following attribute:

primary
Indicates whether or not this instructional method is the primary instructional method of the event. Use of the primary attribute is required. Valid values are true and false. One instructional method must be marked as primary for an instructional event.

Either InstructionalMethod or AssessmentMethod is required

0 or more

Non-null string

AssessmentMethod

An assessment method used in this event. It is strongly recommended that communities using this specification to share information use an agreed upon set of terms. A recommended list is available as part of the Curriculum Inventory Standardized Instructional and Assessment Methods and Resources [ Vocabularies ].

AssessmentMethod has the following attribute:

purpose
Indicates whether the assessment is used for formative or summative assessment. Use of the purpose attribute is required. Valid values are Formative and Summative.

Either InstructionalMethod or AssessmentMethod is required

0 or more

Non-null string

AssessmentResults

AssessmentResults contains subelements that provide detailed information on the results of any assessment included in this event.

For more information, see section AssessmentResults.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

PortfolioReference

PortfolioReference provides either an XPath reference or a URI reference to a portfolio entry providing supporting information related to this event.

For more information, see section PortfolioReference.

Optional

0 or more

Container

 


8.5        AssessmentResults

AssessmentResults contains subelements that provide detailed information on the results of any assessment included in an event. It may also describe summary results for an educational program. Assessment results include the scores, performance levels achieved, competencies or objectives assessed, evidence reviewed and subscores.

 

AssessmentResults Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

AssessmentResults

AssessmentResults contains subelements that provide detailed information on the results of any assessment included in an event.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Score

Score contains subelements that describe the overall score on this assessment in detail.  Several different types of scores may be represented. 

For more information, see section Score.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

CompetencyObjectReference

A reference to the unique id for a learning objective, competency, learning outcome, (all of which are known as competency objects) associated with this event. CompetencyObjectReference has the following format:

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext/ Expectations/CompetencyObject [lom:lom/ lom:general/lom:identifier/lom:entry= ' X ' ]

All in one line, where X is the id of a Competency Object in this achievement record.

Optional

0 or 1

Restricted (to conformant XPath)

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

Evidence

Evidence contains a description of and optional reference to the evidence considered when producing these assessment results.

For more information, see section Evidence.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

SubScore

Subscore contains subelements that describe a subscore for this assessment in detail. Several different types of subscores may be represented.

For more information, see section SubScore.

Optional

0 or more

Container

Date

The date of this assessment.

Required

1

Date

Notes

Any notes or reflections the learner has recorded related to this assessment.

Optional

0 or 1

NonNullString

Example:

Tbd

 

8.6        Score

Score contains subelements that describe the overall score on this assessment in detail.  Several different types of scores may be represented, including descriptive scores (i.e.proficient) and performance levels or milestones.

ScoreType is an extension of the PESC EducationTestScoresType from the PESC XML Education Test Score Reporting. For more information, visit: http://www.pesc.org/interior.php?page_id=132   [ ETS ].

 

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

Score

 

 

 

 

RawScoreValue

PercentCorrectValue

ScaleScoreValue

LabelValue

MasteryValue

CourseGrade

GPA

NormReferencedValues

See the Implementation Guide to the Postsecondary Electronic Standards Council XML Standard Format for Education Test Score Reporting Version 1.0.0.1 description of EducationTestScores [ ETS ]

 

 

 

LabelValueDescription

A description of the label that describes the score value. For example, if the label value is proficient, description provides more information about the meaning of that value.

Optional

0 or 1

NonNullString

PerformanceLevelReference

A reference to a performance level within a performance framework.  This includes references to milestones in graduate medical education. (MORE DETAILS TO COME)

Optional

0 or 1

 

Title

A title for the score. (This may not be necessary for score but needed for subscore)

Required

1

NonNullString

Description

A description of what the score is for. (This may not be necessary for score but needed for subscore)

Optional

0 or 1

NonNullString

 

8.7        Evidence

Evidence contains a description of and optional reference to the evidence considered when producing assessment results.

Evidence Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

Evidence

Evidence contains a description of and optional reference to the evidence considered when producing these assessment results.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Description

A description of the evidence considered when producing these assessment results.

Either Description or Reference is required. Both may be present.

0 or 1

NonNull String

Reference

A reference to the evidence considered when producing these assessment results. There may be multiple reference elements to point to multiple pieces of evidence considered in this assessment.

NOTE: May also need xpath reference.

Either Description or Reference is required. Both may be present.

0 or more

anyURI

 

Example:

Tbd

 

8.8        Subscore

 

 

8.9        PortfolioReference

A pointer to a portfolio entry providing supporting information related to this event. PortfolioReference has the following format:

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext/ Portfolio/ pathtoentry

All in one line, where pathtoentry provides the path to the specific portfolio entry.

[should we provide the capability to link, too?]

Restricted (to conformant XPath)

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

8.10   Expectations

 


9          Sample XML Document s

 

TBD

 


10     References (to be fixed)

 

For references citing a specific date or edition, only the edition cited applies. For references that do not cite a specific edition, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments or corrigenda) applies.

Albanese 1
Albanese MA, Mejicano G, Mullan P, Kokotailo P and Gruppen L.  Defining characteristics of educational competencies.  Medical Education 2008; 42(3):248-55.

Competency Object
MedBiquitous Competency Object Specifications and description Document. MedBiquitous Website. http://www.medbiq.org/sites/default/files/CompetencyObjectSpecification.pdf . Accessed June 16, 2011.

DCMI Terms
DCMI Metadata Terms, October 11, 2010. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Website. http://dublincore.org/documents/2010/10/11/dcmi-terms/ . Accessed October 17, 2011.

ETS
Implementation Guide to the Postsecondary Electronic Standards Council XML Standard Format for Education Test Score Reporting Version 1.0.0.1.
http://www.pesc.org/library/docs/standards/ETSR/Implementation%20Guide.ETSR.v1.0.0.1.pdf Accessed May 1, 2012.

Harden 1
Harden RM.  Learning outcomes and instructional objectives: is there a difference?  Medical Teacher 2002; 24(2):151-5.

Harden 2
Harden RM, Crosby JR, Davis MH and Friedman M.  AMEE Guide No. 14: Outcome-based education: Part 5 – From competency to meta-competency: a model for the specification of learning outcomes.  Medical Teacher 1999; 21(6):546-52.

Healthcare LOM
ANSI/MEDBIQ LO.10.1-2008, Healthcare Learning Object Metadata, MedBiquitous Website.
http://www.medbiq.org/std_specs/standards/index.html#HCLOM . Accessed June 1, 2011.

IEEE RCD
1484.20.1-2007 - IEEE Standard for Learning Technology-Data Model for Reusable Competency Definitions, IEEE Standards Association Website.
http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/1484.20.1-2007.html. Downloaded October 21 , 2009.

LOM
"IEEE Standard for Learning Technology-Extensible Markup Language (XML) Schema Definition Language Binding for Learning Object Metadata," IEEE Std 1484.12.3-2005 , vol., no., pp.0_1-46, 2005
doi: 10.1109/IEEESTD.2005.97889
URL:  
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1532505&isnumber=32693

SKOS
SKOS Simple Knowledge Organizations System Namespace Document – HTML Variant, 18 August 2009 Recommendation Edition, W3C website.
http://www.w3.org/200 9 /08/skos-reference/skos.html . Accessed November 10, 2011.

XSD
Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition)
, W3C Website.  26 November 2008 http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-xml-20081126/ . Accessed March 20, 2012.

XHTML
XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition),
A Reformulation of HTML 4 in XML 1. 0. W3C Recommendation 26 January 2000, revised 1 August 2002.  W3C website. http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xhtml1 - 20020801 . Accessed September 6, 2011.