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Educational Achievement Specifications

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Version: 0.0 4 3
Date: June 1 4 , 2012
Authors: Valerie Smothers
Author email: vsmothers@jhmi.edu

 


Version History

 

Version No.

Date

Changed By

Changes Made

0.1

2012-04-11

Valerie Smothers

Initial draft

0.11

2012-05-01

Valerie Smothers

Added assessment results and more subelements.

0.2

2012-05-16

Valerie Smothers

Revised terminology, removed CompetencyObjectReference from AssessmentResults (redundant). Removed title and description from score (redundant). Changed Reference under Evidence to portfolioReference. Added SubScore, PortfolioReference, SummaryScores, and Sequence. Added Note regarding PESC changes to include score ranges.

0.3

2012-06-01

Valerie Smothers

Added definitions for event, integration block, and sequence block. Removed PerformanceLevelReference from Score and Subscore; added FrameworkScore to Score and SubScore (includes a score, performance framework reference, and competency object reference).  Documented FrameworkScore and subelements.

0.4

2012-06-14

Valerie Smothers

Added sources for the terminology definitions, added references, changed SummaryScores to Summary, added Entrustment and EntrustmentEvidence .

 

 

 

 

 

 


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1          Acknowledgements

 

The MedBiquitous Consortium wishes to acknowledge the help of  the MedBiquitous Educational Trajectory Working Group members, invited experts, and other individuals that contributed to the creation of this document, including:

 

  • Linda Lewin, M.D., University of Maryland, Co-Chair
  • Alan Schwartz, Ph.D., University of Illinois at Chicago, Co-Chair

 

  • Susan Albright, Tufts University
  • Michael Barbouche, Odeon Data
  • Linda Bell, RN, MSN, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
  • Dana Bostrom, Association of American Medical Colleges
  • Rachel Brown, M.D., University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine
  • Diane Burkhart, Ph.D., American Osteopathic Association
  • Timothy Cain, Ph.D., Ohio State University
  • Carol Carraccio, M.D., American Board of Pediatrics
  • Kelly Caverzagie, University of Nebraska Medical Center
  • Christa Chaffinch , National Board of Medical Examiners
  • Brian Clare, One45 Software
  • Elaine Dannefer , Ph.D., Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve
  • Jeroen Donkers, Ph.D., University of Maastricht
  • Mike Dugan, Federation of State Medical Boards
  • Robert Englander, Association of American Medical Colleges
  • Maria Esquela, Advanced Informatics
  • Bob Galbraith, M.D., National Board of Medical Examiners
  • Gwen Garrison, Association of American Medical Colleges
  • Maureen Garrity, UC Denver
  • Simon Grant, Ph.D., JISC
  • Hilary Haftel, University of Michigan
  • Patricia Hicks, University of Pennsylvania
  • Kimberly Hoffman, Ph.D., University of Missouri
  • William Iobst, M.D. American Board of Internal Medicine
  • Steve Kenney, American Osteopathic Association
  • John Jackson, University of Virginia
  • Chandler Mayfield, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine  
  • Neil Mehta, MD., Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University
  • David Melamed, M.D., MyEvaluations.com
  • John Norcini, M.D., Foundation for the Advancement of International Medical Education and   Research
  • Patricia O'Sullivan, Ed.D. , University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine
  • Anita Pokorny,   Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy
  • Vijay Rajput, MD., Cooper University Hospital
  • Sandhya Samavedam, Wright Center for Graduate Medical Education
  • Rosalyn Scott, Wright State University
  • Howard Silverman, University of Arizonia
  • C. Scott Smith, M.D., VA Medical Center, Boise Idaho
  • Kirk Smith, M.D., Ph.D., University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
  • Kevin Souza, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine
  • Anderson Spickard, M.D., Vanderbilt School of Medicine
  • Andria Thomas, Ph.D., Medical College of Georgia
  • Linda Thomas-Hemak, The Wright Center for Graduate Medical Education
  • Hettie Till, University of Dundee
  • Janet Trial, University of Southern California
  • Loreen Troy, University of Illinois College of Medicine
  • Sandra Waters, Federation of State Medical Boards

 

Specification authors also received technical guidance from members of the MedBiquitous Technical Steering Committee.

  • Joel Farrell , IBM, Technical Steering Committee Chair
  • James Fiore, American Board of Surgery
  • Steve Kenney, American Osteopathic Association
  • Andrew Rabin, CECity
  • Dan Rehak, Learning Technologies Architect
  • Dan White, American Board of Internal Medicine

 

 

 


2          Documentation Conventions

This document uses the following conventions:

Convention

Description

Bold Text

When used with an XML element name, indicates that the element contains sub-elements.

Italics

When used in an XML element description, an attribute of the XML element.

Monospaced type

Sample XML tags, code, schema, or portion thereof.

 

The document uses graphics generated by Altova XML Spy® software, which uses the following graphical conventions.

address-example_schemadiagram.png


3          Conformance

To conform to the MedBiquitous Educational Achievement specification, an XML document shall:

  • Validate against the Educational Achievement XML Schema available at: http://ns.medbiq.org/educationalachievement/v1/educationalachievment.xsd
  • Conform to any additional requirements stated in this specification.
  • Optionally include elements not defined in this document only in permitted areas and only if those elements are namespace qualified.

 

 


4          Common Data Types

Most of the elements and attributes in MedBiquitous XML documents use the data types defined by the W3C XML 1.0 schema definition [ XSD ]. In some cases MedBiquitous creates its own datatypes as part of its best practices or to meet a specific requirement. Commonly used datatypes are described below.   

4.1        Non-null string

Non-null string is a datatype derived from the XML string datatype.  Non-null string imposes a minimum length of one character on a string and ensures that required elements are complete.

4.2        Identifying Data through XPath

XPath is a language for finding information in an XML document. XPath is used to navigate through elements and attributes in an XML document. It is a W3C Standard.

The MedBiquitous Curriculum Inventory uses XPath to point to data and resources in a single XML report.

XPath expressions use the following construction:

/SomeElement/SomeSubElement

Selects all SomeSubElements that are sub-elements of SomeElement.

/SomeElement/SomeSubElement[@test= ' x ' ]

Selects all SomeSubElements that have an attribute named test with a value of ‘x’ that are sub-elements of SomeElement.

/SomeElement/SomeSubElement/text()

Selects all element content (text) in all SomeSubElements that are sub-elements of SomeElement.

 

Example:

 

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext/Curriculum/Events/Event[@id= ' 123 ' ]

 

This example provides a reference to the Event with an id of 123.

 

 


5          Introduction

This document describes MedBiquitous Educational Achievement specification in detail. It is intended for use by anyone who wants to develop tools or implement electronic systems for reporting an individual’s achievements, including data about the individual’s performance in relation to defined competencies.

Background…

The objective of the specification is to provide a consistent format and data structure for educational achievement data. The standard allows extensions so that data beyond the core set identified in this document may be communicated to other organizations. This specification is intended to work in concert with other specifications.

This specification intentionally excludes the following from its scope:

  • Credentials awarded as a result of achievements, including degrees, certifications, licenses, etc.
  • Continuing education.
  • Activities completed as part of a maintenance of certification or continuous certification process.

 

Credentials may be described using the MedBiquitous Professional Profile. Continuing education, maintenance of certification, and continuous certification activities may be described using the MedBiquitous Activity Report. Information on these standards is available through the Medbiquitous website: http://medbiq.org/std_specs/standards/index.html

 


6          Other Standards, Specifications, or Schema Referenced

 

This standard references the following standards, specifications, or schemas. The informative references here, which describe how these references are used, link to formal references appearing later in this document.

  • MedBiquitous Competency Framework [Competency Framework]
    note about context..
  • Curriculum Inventory [Curriculum Inventory]
     
  • Healthcare Professional profile
     
  • Performance Framework
     
  • Others TBD
     
  • XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition), A Reformulation of HTML 4 in XML 1.0. W3C Recommendation 26 January 2000, revised 1 August 2002.  [ XHTM L ]
    XHTML provides the format for supporting information embedded in the competency framework.

 

 

 


7          Terminology

Much of the terminology in this area is ill-defined or ambiguous, often employed differently (and sometimes interchangeably) by different professionals [ Harden 1 ]  To ensure clarity and consistency we provide working definitions of the terminology we use in the context of this paper:

Note: the Competencies working group is developing many of these definitions. See: http://groups.medbiq.org/medbiq/display/CWG/Performance+Framework+-+Definitions

  • Competency – a statement describing a specific ability, or set of abilities, requiring specific knowledge, skill and/or attitude.  Competencies are used to set performance standards that must be met [ Albanese 1 ]
  • Competency Framework – an organized and structured representation of a set of interrelated and purposeful competency objects. [ Competency Framework ]
  • Competency Object – an umbrella term used to describe any abstract statement of learning or performance expectations, and information related to the statement.  Statements can be learning outcomes, competencies per se, learning objectives, professional roles, topics, classifications/collections, etc.  The Competency Object may include additional data to expand on or support the statement.  The Object is abstract in the sense that it does not inherently contain information about connections of the statement to individuals or events or other objects. [ Competenc y Framework ]
  • Educational Trajectory the path of an individual learner through one or more programs of study. Educational Trajectory may include a sequence of formal curricular activities and events, informal professional development activities and events, and breaks in matriculation.   [ Educational Tra j ectory ]
  • Entrustable Professional Activity An activity that is part of the essential work of a profession, specialty or subspecialty with the following characteristics: requires the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes and their demonstration within an authentic context; is independently executable within a given timeframe by qualified personnel; and leads to observable and measurable outputs. An EPA describes a unit of work, while a competency describes an individual. [ tenCate 1 ]
  • Event a single education or assessment activity documented in a curriculum. Examples of events include: lecture, problem-based learning activity, virtual patient activity, Simulation activity, seminar, lab, and bedside learning activity, to name a few. [ Curriculum Inventory ]
  • Integration Block An integrating concept for a curriculum, such as a theme.   [ Curriculum Inventory ]
  • Performance – a demonstration of practice, such as patient care. Can be used as evidence of one or more competencies. [ Competenc y Framework ]
  • Performance criteria – An explicit description of measurable behaviours indiciative of achievement of a specific performance level of a specific competency.   Note that this is what the pediatrics group refers to as a 'milestone anchor.'
  • Performance level schema A generic set of levels of performance (e.g. beginner, novice, expert; or simply 1-2-3-4) that can be used to frame competency progression. Commonly, one performance level schema is applied to all competencies within a competency framework. In undergraduate and postgraduate medical education, the level of performance generally determines the level of supervision required.
  • Performance Framework A set of performance levels and criteria associated with a competency framework.
  • Sequence Block – an organizational component of a curriculum, such as a year, phase, course, module, etc. Sequence blocks can be nested to show a variety of organizational methods. [ Curriculum Inventory ]
  • Statement of Awarded Responsibility (STAR): A STAR is the point at which entrustment for a specific EPA has been awarded. Awarding STARs for EPAs over time requires supervisors to make deliberate decisions about their trainees’ competence to perform all critical activities for that EPA. [ tenCate 1 ]

 


8          Educational Achievement Schema

The following sections explain the Educational Achievement Schema grammar. Values in bold under XML Tags column indicate that the element has sub-elements.

All the elements having sub-elements will be defined in separate sections. All elements without sub-elements will be defined within the appropriate element sections that use them.

8.1        EducationalAchievement

EducationalAchievment is the root element. It contains subelements that describe a learner’s achievements in detail. EducationalAchievement must occur once within an Educational Achievment document.

EducationalAchievement Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

EducationalAchievement

EducationalAchievment is the root element. It describes a learner’s educational achievements in detail.

Required

1

Container

 

Date

The date of this educational achievement record.

Required

1

Date

Learner

Information about the learner whose educational achievement data is described.

Learner uses the MemberType from the MedBiquitous Healthcare Professional Profile [ Professional Profile ].

Required

1

Container

For more information, see ANSI/MEDBIQ 10.1-2008 Healthcare Professional Profile.

AchievementInContext

Information about a learner’s achievements within the context of a curriculum of instruction and/or assessment.

Required

1 or more

Container

 

Example:

 

TBD

 

8.2        AchievementInContext

AchievmentInContext is a subelement of EducationalAchievement. It contains subelements that describe a learner’s achievements within the context of a curriculum of instruction and/or assessment.

 

AchievementInContext Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

AchievementInContext

Information about a learner’s achievements within the context of a curriculum of instruction and/or assessment.

Required

1 or more

Container

Source

The source of this achievement data.

Required

1

NonNullString

ReportID

A unique identifier for this set of achievement data. ReportID has the following attribute:

domain

Defines defines the organization that is the source of the unique identifier. Domain has the following format:

idd: domainname : localidentifier

Where:

domainname is an internet domain name owned by the organization issuing the unique ID and

localidentifer is a local identifier for the type of unique ID.

For example:

idd:ucsf.edu:somreport

 

Required

1

NonNullString

Institution

Institution contains the name, identifier, and address of the institution where the educational achievements were made.

Institution uses the InstitutionInfoType from the MedBiquitous Healthcare Professional Profile [ Professional Profile ].

Required

1

Container

For more information, see ANSI/MEDBIQ 10.1-2008 Healthcare Professional Profile.

Program

Program contains the name and identifier of the program where the achievements were made. 

Program uses the ProgramType from the MedBiquitous Curriculum Inventory [ Curriculum Inventory ].

Optional

0 or 1

Container

For more information, see MedBiquitous Curriculum Inventory.

ReportDate

The date the report was created.

Required

1

Date

ReportingStartDate

The first day of the period that this achievement data covers.

Required

1

Date

ReportingEndDate

The last day of the period that this achievement data covers.

Required

1

Date

Language

The language of the achievement data. For example, en-US indicates US English.

Optional

0 or 1

Language

Description

A free text description of the curriculum in which the learner was engaged.

Optional

0 or 1

NonNullString

SupportingLink

A link to supporting information, such as a pictorial representation of the curriculum or a document explaining the rationale behind the curriculum structure.

The link must be a URN or URL. For example: http://www.example.edu/curriculum.pdf

Optional

0 or 1

anyURI

Events

Events contains information about the education and assessment events the learner experienced.

For more information, see section Events.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Expectations

Expectations contains subelements that describe the competencies, learning objectives, and learning outcomes  implemented in a curriculum and how they are organized.

Expectations uses the ExpectationsType from the MedBiquitous Curriculum Inventory [ Curriculum Inventory ].

Optional

0 or 1

Container

For more information, see MedBiquitous Curriculum Inventory.

PerformanceFrameworks

PerformanceFrameworks contains subelements that describe sets of performance levels and criteria associated with competency frameworks.

For more information, see…

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Summary Score s

Summary Score s contains subelements that describe the learner’s performance across the curriculum.

For more information, see section Summary Score s .

Optional

0 or 1

Container

AcademicLevels

AcademicLevels contains subelements that describe information about the academic levels defined for this curriculum.

Program uses the AcademicLevelsType from the MedBiquitous Curriculum Inventory [ Curriculum Inventory ].

Optional

0 or 1

Container

For more information, see MedBiquitous Curriculum Inventory.

Sequence

Sequence contains subelements that describe information about how the learner’s curriculum of study is organized over a period of time.

For more information, see section Sequence.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Integration

Integration contains subelements that describe how a curriculum is integrated.

For more information, see section Integration.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Portfolio

Portfolio includes the learner’s educational trajectory and other portfolio data related to this record of achievement.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Elements from other namespaces

AchievementInContext may include elements from other namespaces provided those elements are namespace qualified.

Optional

0 or 1

Any

 

Example:

Tbd

 

8.3        Events

Events contains information about the education and assessment events the learner experienced.

 

Events Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

Events

Events contains sub elements that describe information about the education and assessment events that comprise the curriculum

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Event

Event contains subelements that describe a single education or assessment event. Examples of events include: lecture, problem-based learning activity, virtual patient activity, seminar, lab, OSCE, and written exam, to name a few.

For more information, see section Event.

Required

1 or more

Container

 

Example:

Tbd

 

8.3.1         Event

Event is a subelement of Events that contains subelements that describe a single education or assessment event the learner experienced. Examples of events include: lecture, problem-based learning activity, virtual patient activity, Simulation activity, seminar, lab, bedside learning activity, OSCE, and written exam to name a few. Events can be combined to form a sequence block within a curriculum. Events may reference learning objectives, competencies, or learning outcomes captured in expectations, as well as curricular themes, known as integration blocks. Events may contain assessment results.

 

(NOTE: PESC HAS OFFERED TO ADD THE ABILITY TO INCLUDE SCORE RANGES WITHIN THE NORM REFERENCED VALUES ELEMENT OF THEIR SPECIFICATION. WE WILL REFERENCE THE REVISED SPECIFICATION AS SOON AS IT BECOMES AVAILABLE)


Event Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

Event

Event contains subelements that describe a single education or assessment event. Examples of events include: lecture, problem-based learning activity, virtual patient activity, seminar, lab, OSCE, and written exam, to name a few.

Event has the following attribute:

id
A unique identifier for this event. Use of the id attribute is required.

Required

1 or more

Container

Title

A title for this education or assessment event.

Required

1

Non-null string

EventDuration

The duration of the event.in hours. For example, PT20H indicates 20 hours.

Required

1

Duration (restricted to hours)

Description

A free text description of the education or assessment event.

Optional

0 or 1

Non-null string

Keyword

An important concept or topic related to the event.

Keyword uses the keyword type and custom attributes from Healthcare Learning Object Metadata [ Healthcare LOM ].

Optional

0 or more

For more information see ANSI/MEDBIQ  LO.10.1-2008.

Interprofessional

An indicator as to whether or not this event is designed to engage students of different health professions as teams. The default value is false.

Optional

0 or 1

Boolean

CompetencyObjectReference

A reference to the unique id for a learning objective, competency, learning outcome, (all of which are known as competency objects) associated with this event. CompetencyObjectReference has the following format:

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext/ Expectations/CompetencyObject [lom:lom/ lom:general/lom:identifier/lom:entry= ' X ' ]

All in one line, where X is the id of a Competency Object in this achievement record.

Optional

0 or more

Restricted (to conformant XPath)

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

Resource

A resource used in this event. A recommended list is available as part of the Curriculum Inventory Standardized Instructional and Assessment Methods and Resources [ Vocabularies ].

Optional

0 or more

Non-null string

InstructionalMethod

An instructional method used in this event. It is strongly recommended that communities using this specification to share information use an agreed upon set of terms. A recommended list is available as part of the Curriculum Inventory Standardized Instructional and Assessment Methods and Resources [ Vocabularies ].

InstructionalMethod has the following attribute:

primary
Indicates whether or not this instructional method is the primary instructional method of the event. Use of the primary attribute is required. Valid values are true and false. One instructional method must be marked as primary for an instructional event.

Either InstructionalMethod or AssessmentMethod is required

0 or more

Non-null string

AssessmentMethod

An assessment method used in this event. It is strongly recommended that communities using this specification to share information use an agreed upon set of terms. A recommended list is available as part of the Curriculum Inventory Standardized Instructional and Assessment Methods and Resources [ Vocabularies ].

AssessmentMethod has the following attribute:

purpose
Indicates whether the assessment is used for formative or summative assessment. Use of the purpose attribute is required. Valid values are Formative and Summative.

Either InstructionalMethod or AssessmentMethod is required

0 or more

Non-null string

AssessmentResults

AssessmentResults contains subelements that provide detailed information on the results of any assessment included in this event.

For more information, see section AssessmentResults.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

PortfolioReference

PortfolioReference provides either an XPath reference or a URI reference to a portfolio entry providing supporting information related to this event.

For more information, see section PortfolioReference.

Optional

0 or more

Container

 


8.3.2         AssessmentResults

AssessmentResults contains subelements that provide detailed information on the results of any assessment included in an event or sequence block. It may also describe summary results for an educational program. Assessment results include the scores, performance levels achieved, competencies or objectives assessed, evidence reviewed and subscores.

 

AssessmentResults Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

AssessmentResults

AssessmentResults contains subelements that provide detailed information on the results of any assessment.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Score

Score contains subelements that describe the overall score on this assessment in detail.  Several different types of scores may be represented. 

For more information, see section Score.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Evidence

Evidence contains a description of and optional reference to the evidence considered when producing these assessment results.

For more information, see section Evidence.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

SubScore

SubScore contains subelements that describe a subscore for this assessment in detail. Several different types of subscores may be represented.

For more information, see section SubScore.

Optional

0 or more

Container

Date

The date of this assessment.

Required

1

Date

Notes

Any notes or reflections the learner has recorded related to this assessment.

Optional

0 or 1

NonNullString

Example:

Tbd

 

8.3.3         Score

Score contains subelements that describe the overall score on this assessment in detail.  Several different types of scores may be represented, including descriptive scores (i.e.proficient) and performance levels or milestones.

ScoreType is an extension of the PESC EducationTestScoresType from the PESC XML Education Test Score Reporting. For more information, visit: http://www.pesc.org/interior.php?page_id=132   [ ETS ].

 

Score Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

Score

Score contains subelements that describe the overall score on this assessment in detail.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

RawScoreValue

PercentCorrectValue

ScaleScoreValue

LabelValue

MasteryValue

CourseGrade

GPA

NormReferencedValues

See the Implementation Guide to the Postsecondary Electronic Standards Council XML Standard Format for Education Test Score Reporting Version 1.0.0.1 description of EducationTestScores [ ETS ]

 

 

 

LabelValueDescription

A description of the label that describes the score value. For example, if the label value is proficient, description provides more information about the meaning of that value.

Optional

0 or 1

NonNullString

FrameworkScore

FrameworkScore contains subelements that describe the learner’s score in relation to a performance framework.

For more information, see section FrameworkScore.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

 

 

 

 

 

 

Example:

TBD

8.3.4         Evidence

Evidence contains a description of and optional reference to the evidence considered when producing assessment results.

Evidence Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

Evidence

Evidence contains a description of and optional reference to the evidence considered when producing these assessment results.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Description

A description of the evidence considered when producing these assessment results.

Either Description or PortfolioReference is required. Both may be present.

0 or 1

NonNull String

PortfolioReference

A reference to a portfolio entry considered when producing these assessment results. There may be multiple PortfolioReference elements to point to multiple pieces of evidence considered in this assessment.

For information on the structure of PortfolioReference, see section PortfolioReference.

Either Description or PortfolioReference is required. Both may be present.

0 or more

Container

 

Example:

Tbd

 

8.3.5         SubScore

SubScore contains subelements that describe a subscore in detail. Several different types of subscores may be represented, including descriptive scores (i.e.proficient) and performance levels or milestones.

SubScoreType extends ScoreType, which is an extension of the PESC EducationTestScoresType from the PESC XML Education Test Score Reporting. For more information, visit: http://www.pesc.org/interior.php?page_id=132   [ ETS ].

 

SubScore Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

SubScore

SubScore contains subelements that describe a subscore in detail.

Optional

0 or more

Container

RawScoreValue

PercentCorrectValue

ScaleScoreValue

LabelValue

MasteryValue

CourseGrade

GPA

NormReferencedValues

See the Implementation Guide to the Postsecondary Electronic Standards Council XML Standard Format for Education Test Score Reporting Version 1.0.0.1 description of EducationTestScores [ ETS ]

 

 

 

LabelValueDescription

A description of the label that describes the score value. For example, if the label value is proficient, description provides more information about the meaning of that value.

Optional

0 or 1

NonNullString

FrameworkScore

FrameworkScore contains subelements that describe the learner’s score in relation to a performance framework.

For more information, see section FrameworkScore.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

 

 

 

 

 

Title

A title for the subscore.  For example, Clinical skills.

Required

1

NonNullString

Description

A description of what the subscore is for.

Optional

0 or 1

NonNullString

CompetencyObjectReference

A reference to the unique id for a learning objective, competency, learning outcome, (all of which are known as competency objects) associated with this event. CompetencyObjectReference has the following format:

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext/ Expectations/CompetencyObject [lom:lom/ lom:general/lom:identifier/lom:entry= ' X ' ]

All in one line, where X is the id of a Competency Object in this achievement record.

Optional

0 or 1

Restricted (to conformant XPath)

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

 

Example:

TBD

 

8.3.6         FrameworkScore

FrameworkScore contains subelements that describe the learner’s score in relation to a performance framework.

FrameworkScore Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

FrameworkScore

PortfolioReference provides either an XPath reference or a URI reference to a portfolio entry providing supporting information.

Optional

0 or more

Container

PerformanceScore

A score on a scale defined within a performance framework. The score maybe the result of a single assessment or a summary score for multiple assessments.

Required

1

Decimal

CompetencyObjectReference

A reference to the unique id for a learning objective, competency, learning outcome, (all of which are known as competency objects) associated with this event. CompetencyObjectReference has the following format:

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext/ Expectations/CompetencyObject [lom:lom/ lom:general/lom:identifier/lom:entry= ' X ' ]

All in one line, where X is the id of a Competency Object in this achievement record.

Optional

0 or 1

Restricted (to conformant XPath)

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

PerformanceFrameworkReference

A reference to the performance framework used for determining the performance score. (MORE DETAILS TO COME)

 

 

Restricted (to conformant XPath)

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

 

 

8.3.7         PortfolioReference

PortfolioReferencecontains subelements that provide an XPath or URI pointer to supporting information or evidence . The URI reference is used to point to an external portfolio. The XPath reference is used to point to the portfolio section of this Educational Achievement data set.

 

PortfolioReference Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

PortfolioReference

PortfolioReference provides either an XPath reference or a URI reference to a portfolio entry providing supporting information.

Optional

0 or more

Container

XPathReference

A pointer to a portfolio entry in this EducationalAchievement data set providing supporting information. PortfolioReference has the following format:

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext/ Portfolio/ pathtoentry

All in one line, where pathtoentry provides the path to the specific portfolio entry.

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

Either XPathReference or URIReference is required.

0 or 1

NonNull String

URIReference

A pointer to an external portfolio entry or supporting evidence providing related information related to this event .

Either XPathReference or URIReference is required.

0 or 1

anyURI

 

Example:

TBD

 

8.4        Performance Frameworks

TBD

8.5        Summary Score s

Summary Score s contains subelements that describe the learner’s performance across the curriculum.

SummaryScores Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

Summary Scores

SummaryScores contains subelements that describe the learner’s performance across the curriculum.  Summary scores may be linked to specific competencies.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

SummaryScore

SummaryScore describes the learner’s performance in relation to a single topic or competency across the curriculum. SummaryScore uses the SubScore datatype.

For information on the structure of SummaryScore, see the section SubScore.

Either SummaryScore or Entrusment is R r equired

1 0 or more

Container

(uses the SubScore datatype)

Entrustment

Entrustment describes a decision to entrust the learner to perform certain activities.

For more information, see section Entrusment.

Either SummaryScore or Entrusment is required

0 or more

Container

 

Example:

TBD

 

Entrustment

Entrustment describes a decision to entrust the learner to perform certain activities. It is based on ten Cate’s notion s of Statements of Awarded responsibility and Entrustable P rofessional Activities [ ten Cate 1] .

Entrustment Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

Entrustment

Entrustment describes a decision to entrust the learner to perform certain activities.

Either SummaryScore or Entrusment is required

0 or more

Container

Title

A title for this entrustment decision.

Required

1

NonNull String

Description

A description of this entrustment decision.

Optional

0 or 1

NonNull String

CompetencyObjectReference

A reference to a competency object that describes the activity with which the learner has been entrusted. The competency object may describe an Entrustable P rofessional Activity.

CompetencyObjectReference has the following format:

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext/ Expectations/CompetencyObject [lom:lom/ lom:general/lom:identifier/lom:entry= ' X ' ]

All in one line, where X is the id of a Competency Object in this achievement record.

Optional

0 or 1

Restricted (to conformant XPath)

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

AwardDate

The date entrustment was awarded to the learner.

Required

1

Date

ExpirationDate

The date this entrustment decision expires.

Optional

0 or 1

Date

EntrustmentEvidence

EntrustmentEvidence contains subelements identifying the evidence weighed in making this entrustment decision.

For more information, see section EntrustmentEvidence.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

 

Example:

TBD

 

EntrustmentEvidence

EntrustmentEvidence identifying the evidence weighed in making this entrustment decision.  

EntrustmentEvidence Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

EntrustmentEvidence

EntrustmentEvidence contains subelements identifying the evidence weighed in making this entrustment decision.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Description

A description of this entrustment decision.

At least one of the following elements is required: Description, PortfolioReference, AchievementReference .

0 or more

NonNull String

PortfolioReference

A reference to a portfolio entry. There may be multiple PortfolioReference elements to point to multiple pieces of evidence considered in this decision.

For information on the structure of PortfolioReference, see section PortfolioReference.

At least one of the following elements is required: Description, PortfolioReference, AchievementReference

0 or more

Container

AchievementReference

A pointer to an entry (Event, SequenceBlock, or Summary Score) in this EducationalAchievement data set. Achievement Reference has the following format:

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext/ pathtoentry

All in one line, where pathtoentry provides the path to the specific educational achievement entry.

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

At least one of the following elements is required: Description, PortfolioReference, AchievementReference

0 or more

NonNull String

 

Example:

TBD

 

8.6        Sequence

Sequence contains subelements that describe information about how the learner’s curriculum of study is organized over a period of time. The curriculum’s sequence consists of a series of sequence blocks, which correspond to courses or other blocks of curricular content.

Sequence Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

Sequence

Sequence contains subelements that describe information about how the learner’s curriculum of study is organized over a period of time.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

Description

A description of the overall sequence of the curriculum.

Optional

0 or 1

NonNull String

SequenceBlock

Contains sub elements that define an organizational component of the curriculum, such as a year, phase, course module, etc. See section SequenceBlock for more information.

Required

1 or more

Container

 

Example:

< Sequence >

< Description > There are 2 years of preclinical work followed by 2 years of clinical work. </ Description >

< SequenceBlock required =" true " id =" asdfg ">

. . .

</ SequenceBlock >

< SequenceBlock required =" true " id =" sdfgh ">

. . .

</ SequenceBlock >

</ Sequence >

 

8.6.1         SequenceBlock

SequenceBlock is a sub element of Sequence that contains sub elements that define an organizational component of the curriculum, such as a year, phase, course, module, etc. Sequence blocks can be nested to show a variety of organizational methods.

SequenceBlock Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

SequenceBlock

SequenceBlock contains sub elements that define an organizational component of the curriculum, such as a year, phase, course, module, etc.

SequenceBlock has the following attributes:

id
A unique identifier for this sequence block. Use of the id attribute is required.

required
Indicates whether this sequence block is a required part of the curriculum. Valid values are Required, Optional, and Required In Track. Use of the required attribute is required.

track
Indicates whether this sequence block is a track within the curriculum. Valid values are true and false; the default value is false.

Required

1

Container

Title

The title of the sequence block.

Required

1

NonNull String

Description

A description of the sequence block.

Optional

0 or 1

NonNull String

StartDate

The date the sequence block began.

Required

1

Date

EndDate

The date the sequence block ended.

Required

1

Date

Level

Level indicates the educational level at which this sequence block occurs. For schools using academic years as the basis for progress through the curriculum, level corresponds to the academic year in which the sequence block occurs. Level has the following format:

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext/ AcademicLevels/Level[@number= ' X ' ]

All in one line, where X is the number 1 through 10 corresponding to an academic level defined for this curriculum.

Required

1

Restricted (to conformant XPath)

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

ClerkshipModel

If the sequence block represents a clerkship, clerkship model may be used to indicate the type of clerkship. Valid values are: integrated, rotation.

Optional

0 or 1

Restricted
See Description for details.

CompetencyObjectReference

A reference to the unique id for a learning objective, competency, learning outcome, (all of which are known as competency objects) associated with this event. CompetencyObjectReference has the following format:

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext/ Expectations/CompetencyObject
[lom:lom/lom:general/lom:identifier/lom:entry= ' X ' ]

All in one line, where X is the id of a Competency Object in this Curriculum Inventory.

Optional

0 or more

Restricted (to conformant XPath)

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

Precondition

Describes preconditions that the learner met to take this course.

Optional

0 or 1

NonNull String

Postcondition

Describes how the curriculum changes depending on the learner’s performance in the sequence block.

Optional

0 or 1

NonNull String

SequenceBlockEventReference

A reference to an education or assessment event included in the sequence block.  SequenceBlockEventReference has the following format:

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext /Events/Event[@id = ' x ' ]

 

All in one line, where X is the id of an event in this curriculum.

SequenceBlockEventReference has the following attribute:

required

Indicates whether this event is a required part of the sequence block. The required attribute uses the Boolean datatype; valid values are true and false. Use of the required attribute is required.

Either SequenceBlockEventReference or SequenceBlockReference is required

0 or more

Restricted (to conformant XPath)

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

SequenceBlockReference

A reference to a nested sequence block. SequenceBlockReference has the following format:

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext /Sequence/SequenceBlock[@id= ' X ' ]

All in one line, where X is the id of a sequence block in this curriculum.

Either SequenceBlockEventReference or SequenceBlockReference is required

0 or more

Restricted (to conformant XPath)

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

AssessmentResults

AssessmentResults contains subelements that provide detailed information on the results of any assessment included in this sequence block.

For more information, see section AssessmentResults.

Optional

0 or 1

Container

PortfolioReference

A reference to a portfolio entry related to this sequence block. There may be multiple PortfolioReference elements to point to multiple pieces of evidence related to this sequence block.

See section PortfolioReference for more information.

Optional

0 or more

Container

 

 

8.7        Integration

Integration contains subelements that describe how a curriculum is integrated. In many cases curricula are structured around organ systems or other organizing concepts, and within that context, content related to a specific topic, discipline, or theme is incorporated. For example, a course on the cardiovascular system may contain content related to themes of anatomy, pharmacology, etc.

 

Integration Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

Integration

Integration contains sub elements that describe how a curriculum is integrated.

Optional

1

Container

Description

A description of the approach to integrating the curriculum.

Optional

0 or 1

Non-null string

IntegrationBlock

Contains sub elements that define an integrating concept for this curriculum, such as a theme. See section IntegrationBlock for more information.

Required

1 or more

Container

 

Example:

< Integration >

< Description > We have themes woven throughout the curriculum </ Description >

< IntegrationBlock id =" 8765 ">

. .

</ IntegrationBlock >

< IntegrationBlock id =" 7654 ">

. .

</ IntegrationBlock >

</ Integration >

 

8.7.1         Integration Block

IntegrationBlock contains subelements that define an integrating concept for this curriculum. Many curricula have several integrating concepts, or themes, that apply to many courses, competencies, objectives, and events.

 

 

IntegrationBlock Element Information

Element

Description

Required

Multiplicity

Datatype

IntegrationBlock

Contains sub elements that define an integrating concept for this curriculum, such as a theme. IntegrationBlock has the following attribute:

id
A unique identifier for this integration block. Use of the id attribute is required.

Required

1 or more

Container

Title

The title of the integration block. For example, Rural Health.

Required

1

Non-null string

Description

A description of the integrating concept.

Optional

0 or 1

Non-null string

CompetencyObjectReference

A reference to the unique id for a learning objective, competency, learning outcome, (all of which are known as competency objects) associated with this integration block. CompetencyObjectReference has the following format:

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext /Expectations/CompetencyObject
[lom:lom/lom:general/lom:identifier/lom:entry= ' X ' ]

All in one line, where X is the id of a Competency Object in this curriculum.

Optional

0 or more

Restricted (to conformant XPath)

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

EventReference

A reference to an event associated with this integration block. EventReference has the following format:

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext /Events/Event[@id= ' X ' ]

All in one line, where X is the id of an event in this curriculum.

Optional

0 or more

Restricted (to conformant XPath)

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

SequenceBlockReference

A reference to a sequence block associated with this integration block. SequenceBlockReference has the following format:

/EducationalAchievement/AchievementInContext /Sequence/SequenceBlock[@id= ' X ' ]

All in one line, where X is the id of an event in this curriculum.

Optional

0 or more

Restricted (to conformant XPath)

See section Identifying Data through XPath for more information

 

8.8        Portfolio

Portfolio includes the learner’s educational trajectory and other portfolio data related to this record of achievement. Portfolio may contain any elements from other namespaces provided those elements are namespace qualified.

 

 

 


9          Sample XML Document s

 

TBD

 


10     References (to be fixed)

 

For references citing a specific date or edition, only the edition cited applies. For references that do not cite a specific edition, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments or corrigenda) applies.

Albanese 1
Albanese MA, Mejicano G, Mullan P, Kokotailo P and Gruppen L.  Defining characteristics of educational competencies.  Medical Education 2008; 42(3):248-55.

Competency Object
MedBiquitous Competency Object Specifications and Description Document. MedBiquitous Website. http://www.medbiq.org/sites/default/files/CompetencyObjectSpecification.pdf . Accessed June 16, 2011.

Competency Framework
MedBiquitous Competency Framework Specifications. MedBiquitous Website.
http://medbiq.org/working_groups/competencies/CompetencyFrameworkSpecification.pdf Accessed June 13, 2012.

Curriculum   Inventory
MedBiquitous Curriculum Inventory Specifications, version 0.57. MedBiquitous Website. http://www.medbiq.org/sites/default/files/files/CurriculumInventorySpecification.pdf Accessed May 16 , 2012.

DCMI Terms
DCMI Metadata Terms, October 11, 2010. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Website. http://dublincore.org/documents/2010/10/11/dcmi-terms/ . Accessed October 17, 2011.

Educational T rajectory
MedBiquitous Educational trajectory Profile, version 0.76. MedBiquitous Website.
http://medbiq.org/sites/default/files/EducationalTrajectoryProfile.pdf Accessed June 13, 2012.

ETS
Implementation Guide to the Postsecondary Electronic Standards Council XML Standard Format for Education Test Score Reporting Version 1.0.0.1.
http://www.pesc.org/library/docs/standards/ETSR/Implementation%20Guide.ETSR.v1.0.0.1.pdf Accessed May 1, 2012.

Harden 1
Harden RM.  Learning outcomes and instructional objectives: is there a difference?  Medical Teacher 2002; 24(2):151-5.

Harden 2
Harden RM, Crosby JR, Davis MH and Friedman M.  AMEE Guide No. 14: Outcome-based education: Part 5 – From competency to meta-competency: a model for the specification of learning outcomes.  Medical Teacher 1999; 21(6):546-52.

Healthcare LOM
ANSI/MEDBIQ LO.10.1-2008, Healthcare Learning Object Metadata, MedBiquitous Website.
http://www.medbiq.org/std_specs/standards/index.html#HCLOM . Accessed June 1, 2011.

IEEE RCD
1484.20.1-2007 - IEEE Standard for Learning Technology-Data Model for Reusable Competency Definitions, IEEE Standards Association Website.
http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/1484.20.1-2007.html. Downloaded October 21 , 2009.

LOM
"IEEE Standard for Learning Technology-Extensible Markup Language (XML) Schema Definition Language Binding for Learning Object Metadata," IEEE Std 1484.12.3-2005 , vol., no., pp.0_1-46, 2005
doi: 10.1109/IEEESTD.2005.97889
URL:  
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1532505&isnumber=32693

SKOS
SKOS Simple Knowledge Organizations System Namespace Document – HTML Variant, 18 August 2009 Recommendation Edition, W3C website.
http://www.w3.org/200 9 /08/skos-reference/skos.html . Accessed November 10, 2011.

tenCate1
ten Cate O, Scheele F. “
Competency-based postgraduate training: can we bridge the gap between theory and clinical practice? Academic Medicine . 2007;82(6):542-7.

XSD
Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition)
, W3C Website.  26 November 2008 http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-xml-20081126/ . Accessed March 20, 2012.

XHTML
XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition),
A Reformulation of HTML 4 in XML 1. 0. W3C Recommendation 26 January 2000, revised 1 August 2002.  W3C website. http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xhtml1 - 20020801 . Accessed September 6, 2011.