Performance level schema:
Performance criteria or milestones:
Frank JR, Snell LS, ten Cate O, et al. Competency-based medical education: theory to practice. Medical teacher. 2010;32(8):638-45. - Describes CBME and gives key definitions.
ten Cate O, Scheele F. Competency-based postgraduate training: can we bridge the gap between theory and clinical practice? Academic Medicine. 2007;82(6):542-7. - Definition and description of EPAs and STARs; contrast with competencies; no examples though.
Krackov SK, Pohl H. Building expertise using the deliberate practice curriculum-planning model. Medical Teacher 2011;33(7):570-5. - Mentions the role of milestones in curriculum planning.
Khan K, Ramachandran S. Conceptual framework for performance assessment: Competency, competence and performance in the context of assessments in healthcare - Deciphering the terminology. Medical teacher. 2012 Oct 8;Online early:1-9.
Performance Frameworks, Criteria, Milestones, and EPAs
- Boateng BA, Bass LD, Blaszak RT, Farrar HC. The development of a competency-based assessment rubric to measure resident milestones. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2009;1(1):45-8. - Describes process of constructing a rubric to measure observable behaviors related to competencies in pediatrics.
- Hicks P, Schumacher D, Benson B, et al. The pediatrics milestones: conceptual framework, guiding principles, and approach to development. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2010;2(3):410-418. - Includes one example.
- Hicks P, Englander R, Schumacher D, et al. Pediatrics Milestone Project: Next Steps Toward Meaningful Outcomes Assessment. Journal of Graduate Medical Education 2010;2(4):577-584. - Gives examples of assessment instruments.
- Jones MD, Rosenberg AA, Gilhooly JT, Carraccio CL. Perspective: Competencies, outcomes, and controversy--linking professional activities to competencies to improve resident education and practice. Academic Medicine. 2011;86(2):161-5. - Discusses the convergence of EPAs and milestones. Contains a table listing pediatric EPS and mapping them to confidence levels and ACGME competencies.
- Carraccio C, Burke AE. Beyond competencies and milestones: adding meaning through context. Journal of graduate medical education. 2010;2(3):419-22.
- Green ML, Aagaard EM, Caverzagie KJ, et al. Charting the road to competence: developmental milestones for internal medicine residency training. Journal of graduate medical education 2009;1(1):5-20. - Provides many performance criteria and milestones for internal medicine.
- Caverzagie, KJ. Linking Milestones to the Core Competencies using EPAs. Presentation at APDIM, Spring 2012.
- Caverzagie KJ et al. Assessing Competencies in Internal Medicine Residencies: Connecting Milestones to Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs). Workshop at APDIM, Oct 2011. - Gives an example of an EPA (Leading a Family Meeting) and shows how milestones are incorporated into EPAs.
Meade LB, Borden SH, McArdle P, Rosenblum MJ, Picchioni MS, Hinchey KT. From theory to actual practice: Creation and application of milestones in an internal medicine residency program, 2004-2010. Medical teacher. 2012;34(9):717–23.