As part of the standards development process within the Educational Achievement project, MedBiquitous has researched existing standards and specifications that could be assets in the development of an educational achievement specification. As a matter of best practice, MedBiquitous builds on existing standards when it is practical to do so. MedBiquitous staff researched credible learning technology standards developers and relevant open tools. A summary of the findings for each standard or specification researched is included along with information on relevant vocabularies, best practices, and recommendations on the use of competencies. Comments and suggestions for additional research are welcome.
The following organizations were researched:
- CEN (The European Committee for Standardization)
- HR-XML (A consortium for interoperability in human resources)
- IEEE Learning Technologies Standards Committee (IEEE LTSC)
- IMS Global Learning
- The UK Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC)
- The Post Secondary Education Standards Council (PESC)
- Schools Interoperability Framework (SIF)
Within each organization, a search for assessment and competency related standards, specifications, and systems was conducted.
Europass XML Schema v 2.0
Europass is a European Union directive that seeks to make skills and qualifications easily understood across Europe. It includes tools, templates, and specifications for cvs and language skill assessment called a Language Passport. Europass includes identifying information about the individual, their occupation, work experience, education, language, and skills.
European Learner Mobility Achievement Information (EuroLMAI)
“The EuroLM Achievement Information Model seeks to address directly the European requirement for rapid implementation and dissemination of the institution-owned transparency information tools throughout Europe. This EuroLM Achievement Information (EuroLMAI) Model will be developed as a generic model for representing the institution attested achievements of a learner within a formal learning setting, resulting from the learner's participation in one or more learning opportunity instances and including any available associated results. The Europass institution-owned learner achievement information structures, namely the Europass Diploma Supplement and the Europass Mobility, as well as other official achievement reports (e.g. the learner's Transcript of records), will be specified as application profiles of the EuroLMAI model.”
EuroLMAI is a CEN Workshop Agreement approved by those who participated in its development. The specification build on CEN’s Metadata for Learning Opportunities (MLO) – Advertising (MLO-AD) and its Educational Credit Information Model. It combines information about the learning opportunity taken (MLO-AD), which can be a course or an entire program, and adds information about the learner, the issuer, the results of the learning opportunity, the grading scheme used, language, date, and additional information. The document may indicate achievement of a qualification or credit. The specification may be used as a lightweight transcript. The data is at a fairly course level of granularity, much coarser than the information discussed during the working group’s data analysis.
The Europass Diploma Supplement Application Profile of the EuroLMAI (EuroLMAI Europass DS AP) does add some further details to the data model, including the main field of study, any title conferred, and professional status. There are no detailed reports on competencies obtained.
A note about IP: “Licensee may not facilitate or assist any HR technology Standards Organization other than Licensor in co-opting, copying, distributing, publishing or using the Work without prior written approval of Licensor. Licensee may not create any Derivative Work for ownership by, presentation by, distributing by, publishing by or attribution to any Standards Organization or similar entity other than Licensor, unless specifically approved in writing by Licensor.” If we were interested in leveraging EPM, we would clarify our ability to create derivative works, and provide appropriate attribution to all parties, in writing with HR-XML.
The IMS Learner Information Package
IMS Learner Information Package (IMS LIP) provides a common format for the following types of learner information: accessibilities; activities; affiliations; competencies; goals; identifications; interests; qualifications, certifications and licences; relationship; security keys; and transcripts. IMS LIP is able to indicate the level of a qualification attained, for example, journeyman pipe fitter. The Competencies section is able to indicate skills a learner has acquired and their relationship to other activities or qualifications captured in the LIP. It also includes transcript data. The structure is abstract and fairly general. While IMS LIP does allow one to state attainment of a competence, it does not provide a way of indicating the level of performance at a particular point in time.
IMS also has a Learning Information Services development project which allows for outcomes management within an institution, but the details of that project are only visible to IMS members. (See: http://www.imsglobal.org/lis.html )
MedBiquitous Competency Framework
Don’t forget assessment methodologies from curriculum inventory
Use of Competencies